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Infections associated with medical devices. Pathogenesis, management and prophylaxis [Bulletin]

 
[Infections associés aux dispositifs médicaux pathogénèse, prise en charge et prophylaxie]
von Eiff , Christof ; JANSEN B ; KOHNEN W ; BECHER K Drugs
Drugs. 2005; 65(2) : 179-214
Summary: Cet article porte sur l'impact des infections associées aux dispositifs médicaux, leur pathogenèse et en particulier le rôle du biofilm. Il traite de la prise en charge de ces infections par l'ablation du cathéter, le traitement antibiotique et la technique du verrou antibiotique et des stratégies de prévention liées aux soins du cathéter et aux matériaux constituant les cathéters.

The insertion or implantation of foreign bodies has become an indispensable part in almost all fields of medicine. However, medical devices are associated with a definitive risk of bacterial and fungal infections. Foreign body-related infections (FBRIs), particularly catheter-related infections, significantly contribute to the increasing problem of nosocomial infections. While a variety of micro-organisms may be involved as pathogens, staphylococci account for the majority of FBRIs. Their ability to adhere to materials and to promote formation of a biofilm is the most important feature of their pathogenicity. This biofilm on the surface of colonised foreign bodies is regarded as the biological correlative for the clinical experience with FBRI, that is, that the host defence mechanisms often seem to be unable to handle the infection and, in particular, to eliminate the micro-organisms from the infected device. Since antibacterial chemotherapy is also frequently not able to cure these infections despite the use of antibacterials with proven in vitro activity, removal of implanted devices is often inevitable and has been standard clinical practice. However, in specific circumstances, such as infections of implanted medical devices with coagulase-negative staphylococci, a trial of salvage of the device may be justified. All FBRIs should be treated with antibacterials to which the pathogens have been shown to be susceptible. In addition to systemic antibacterial therapy, an intraluminal application of antibacterial agents, referred to as the 'antibiotic-lock' technique, should be considered to circumvent the need for removal, especially in patients with implanted long-term catheters.To reduce the incidence of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections, specific guidelines comprising both technological and nontechnological strategies for prevention have been established. Quality assurance, continuing education, choice of the catheter insertion site, hand hygiene and aseptic techniques are aspects of particular interest. Furthermore, all steps in the pathogenesis of biofilm formation may represent targets against which prevention strategies may be directed. Alteration of the foreign body material surface may lead to a change in specific and nonspecific interactions with micro-organisms and, thus, to a reduced microbial adherence. Medical devices made out of a material that would be antiadhesive or at least colonisation resistant would be the most suitable candidates to avoid colonisation and subsequent infection. Another concept for the prevention of FBRIs involves the impregnation of devices with various substances such as antibacterials, antiseptics and/or metals. Finally, further studies are needed to translate the knowledge on the mechanisms of biofilm formation into applicable therapeutic and preventive strategies.(RESUME D'AUTEUR)
Publication
2005

Pages
179-214

Language
Anglais

Number of ref
277

Published in

ID notice
319106

Location Call number Status Date due Barcode
CCLIN Est
CClin Est
CHU de Nancy - Hôpitaux de Brabois
Rue du Morvan
54511 Vandoeuvre le Nancy Cedex
Tél : 03.83.15.34.73
cclin.est@chu-nancy.fr
http://www.cclin-est.org/
CCLIN Ouest
CClin Ouest
CHU Hôtel Dieu
CS 26419
35064 Rennes Cedex 2
Tél : 02.99.87.35.31
isabelle.girot@chu-rennes.fr
http://www.cclinouest.com/
CCLIN Paris Nord
CClin Paris-Nord
96 rue Didot
75014 Paris
Tél : 01.40.27.42.00  
karin.lebascle@sap.aphp.fr
http://www.cclinparisnord.org/
CCLIN Sud-Est
CClin Sud-Est
Hospices Civils de Lyon
Hôpital Henry Gabriel
20 route de vourles
69230 Saint-Genis-Laval
Tél : 04.78.86.49.50
cclinse@chu-lyon.fr
http://cclin-sudest.chu-lyon.fr/
CCLIN Sud-Ouest
CClin Sud-Ouest
CHU de Bordeaux
Hôpital Pellegrin - Bâtiment Le Tondu
33076 Bordeaux
Tél : 05.56.79.60.58
cclin.so@chu-bordeaux.fr
http://www.cclin-sudouest.com/

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